Below are experiments from the Science Fair Electronic Lie Detector Project Kit copyright 1970 by Radio Shack.
EXPERIMENT 1 – Breathing
Ask the subject to take a very deep breath. You will observe the sound increases in pitch. This indicates his skin resistance has dropped due to the activity of the sweat glands. The slight muscular effort of taking a deep breath causes the sympathetic nervous system to send impulses to the sweat glands which in turn reduces the skin resistance. The change in skin resistance is called a GALVANIC SKIN RESPONSE. It is usually abbreviated to GSR by psychologists. If you are acting as the subject, can you detect your normal breathing cycles?
There are great individual differences which will be observed in these experiments. Some people produce large responses just by talking. Conversely, others will produce only a slight response even it they are kicked in the shins.
EXPERIMENT 2 – Muscle Tension
Direct the subject to squeeze a rubber ball hard for several seconds, or curl his toes and release them. Next, tense the stomach muscles, or same similar activity requiring muscular exertion. Which activity produces the most response? In doing these experiments the subject should keep the hand with the electrodes very still if possible. Allow at least 15 to 20 seconds for rest between tests
EXPERIMENT 3 – The Effect of Temperature on the Galvanic Skin Response
Request the subject to stand outside for a few minutes if it is cold and repeat experiment 1. What results do you get? Give him a few minutes to warm up and try the experiment again. Are the results any different? If possible have the subject remain in a very warm place for a while and try Experiment 1 on him. Have him hold some ice cubes for a short interval; re-test him.
EXPERIMENT 4 – Position of the Electrodes
By now you have probably discovered that a deep breath will usually give a good galvanic response. Try placing one electrode on one hand and one electrode on the other hand. Do you notice any difference? If you are careful, you can try holding the electrodes firmly to other places of the skin. Can you still get good results? As a result of this experiment, what conclusions con you draw about the distribution of sweat glands in the skin?
EXPERIMENT 5 – Experiments With More Than One Person
Put one electrode on one person and the other electrode on another person. Have the two people hold each others hands which are not connected to the electrodes. Try any of the previous experiments on each person separately and on both together. Or place several persons in a chain with the electrodes at the end of the chain, and try experiments on these subjects tied together in series like batteries or other electric elements.
EXPERIMENT 6 – The Effects of Relaxation
Place the electrodes on a subject as previously described. Instruct him to relax as much as possible. Have him shut his eyes and sit or lie quietly. What happens? When a person relaxes his skin resistance increases The instrument reflects this change. Perhaps you can see how a device might be made which would wake a person up whenever he fell asleep.
EXPERIMENT 7 – The Effects of Pain
Ask the subject to pinch himself or bite his lip or finger. Any painful stimulus will produce large galvanic skin responses.
In general the instrument will indicate strong, pleasant or unpleasant emotions. It will also react when a subject is startled, under tension, nervous, or exerting unusual mental effort. The experiments outlined below are just some of the many possible ones that can be tried
EXPERIMENT 8 – The Startle Response
When the electrodes have been placed on a subject and he has remained quiet for 30 seconds, suddenly clap your hands loudly together, or strike your fist on the table. You will observe a large galvanic skin response.
You will notice that the instrument does not respond until some time after the strong stimulus. This time delay is typical with the galvanic skin response and is designated as the LATENCY of the response. It may vary from one to three seconds. Part of the reason for the time delay or latency of response is the addition of a chemical reaction with the electrical reaction. A chemical reaction is usually slower in response than electrical reactions.
Try different methods of startling the subject, such as a flash of light, a slight electric shock. etc. A pronounced reaction may result from a very mild stimulus.
EXPERIMENT 9 – Adaptation and Recovery
Select a standard method of startling the subject which can be regulated and repeated at approximately the same strength every time. Repeat this stimulus at intervals of not less than 30 seconds. What happens to the galvanic skin response? You will note that they rapidly decrease until practically no response can be observed. This reaction is called ADAPTATION by psychologists
Next, do not startle the subject for several minutes. It is advisable to loosen or remove the electrodes occasionally to allow the blood to flow and the skin to breathe.
Suddenly repeat the startle stimulus to the subject. You will probably observe a large galvanic skin response. This is called RECOVERY. How many trials does it take for adaptation to re-occur now as compared with the first time?
EXPERIMENT 10 – Word Association Tests
Most sensory stimuli so far considered have acted directly, or nearly so, on the nervous system to produce a galvanic skin response. If abstract stimuli such as words are presented to the subject, the effect on the nervous system is usually indirect and due to the meanings associated with the words. Pictures or music may also produce galvanic skin response.
Psychologists have often tested the effect of words on subjects by presenting them one at a time and noting their reactions. There ore some words which nearly all people will react to and others which will produce no noticeable reaction. Below is a list of words which you con read to a subject and observe his galvanic skin responses. Read the words slowly and clearly. Pause at least three seconds between each word to allow time for a reaction to occur; otherwise you will not be able to tell which words are associated with large responses. The words with the asterisk have been found to produce galvanic skin responses in most subjects. You can make up your own:
carrot kiss* can white give ball gross subject’s name*
paper woman* sand mother* pencil love*
read afraid* walk proud* flower fry pond marry*
You can easily observe an adaptation effect by repeating those words to which the subject gave large responses.
EXPERIMENT 11 – Apprehension
Most subjects will give a galvanic skin response if they are apprehensive or if they expect that something is about to happen to them. You may startle a subject by a loud noise or a sudden light blow, or you may pinch him but all this is not necessary. Merely remark casually to on onlooker – “Let’s see what a good pinch will do.” and reach out a hand toward the subject. This will often give nearly as large o response as on actual pinch. You may pretend to touch electric wires to the subject to give him a shock and also obtain a galvanic skin response.
These results depend on many factors, such as your personality, the subject’s personality, how well the subject knows you, how many people are present and how many of them are strangers to the subject. It is difficult to control all these factors and you should not be surprised if you do not obtain consistent results.
EXPERIMENT 12 – The Effect of Touch
It is possible to use very weak stimuli with a subject who is apprehensive or otherwise a bit frightened of this instrument. Merely reach out and touch the subject lightly on the hand. You may after, obtain a large galvanic skin response with this very slight stimulus. How do you account for this?
EXPERIMENT 13 – Mental Effort
Any difficult mental task will often produce a galvanic skin response. Ask a subject to solve an arithmetic problem in his head such as, what does 6+3-5 x 4+7+836 = ? You may also try asking him to solve a difficult problem, define a hard word, spell a difficult word, read small print at a great distance, etc.
EXPERIMENT 14 – A Game
Ask the subject to write a number from 0 to 10 on a piece of paper. No one should watch him or look at the number. Then make repeated guesses of the number. When you guess the correct number, the instrument should show it. The subject may try to fool the device by laughing, tensing, coughing, or relaxing as much as possible,
You may try other variations of this by using playing cords or by having the subject hide an abject while others are out of the room. The subject may either deny everything or may say nothing
EXPERIMENT 15 – A Lie Detector
Ask the subject a few simple questions for which you know the correct answer, and observe his response. A lie will be indicated by a galvanic skin response – a lowering of skin resistance. This will occur from one to four seconds after the answer has been given. For this reason, it is important to space the questions at least ten seconds apart. A simple question such as “how tall are you?” will usually produce a large response it the person lies about it Sometimes a response will be observed before the question is actually asked. This is a result of the emotional activity which the person undergoes when he anticipates a revealing question.
One simple procedure is to show the subject a playing card and ask him to name it. After a few preliminary trials where he tells the truth (by request) he may then be permitted to lie. The first lie will probably be clearly indicated. After catching a subject once in a lie, drop this method because most people quickly became practiced at lying about such a simple thing. A similar technique can be attempted by using a coin and asking the subject to name it after it is flipped and shown to him
Note: People vary greatly in their responses. Some are very practiced liars, and a simple, non-emotional or unimportant lie can readily be told without being detected by this device. Also, nearly everyone can learn, in the process described above, to lie in a relaxed manner. These factors require that the operator be both skilled and practiced in the measurement of the galvanic skin response
EXPERIMENT 16 – Conditioning
This is a difficult experiment to do, even for professional psychologists, so do not be concerned if you do not obtain good results. Some subjects are better for this experiment than others and you may have to try two or three.
Instruct the subject to assume a relaxed position. Get two stimuli ready for presentation to the subject. One of the stimuli should be very weak so that by itself it will not produce a galvanic skin response. This may be a small light, a quiet doorbell, or a spoken word. The second stimulus should be strong enough to definitely produce a good galvanic skin response. It may be a very loud sound, such as that made by a hammer on a pan, or it may be a light blow on the arm or a pinch. etc.
First demonstrate that the weak stimulus alone produces no galvanic skin response. Then present both stimuli at nearly the same time to the subject. (You may need two people to do this.) For best results the second, strong stimulus should be given about one-half second after the weak stimulus. Repeat this at intervals of about thirty seconds for three to six times. Then, without forewarning the subject, do not give him the second, strong stimulus. Do you observe that he gives a good galvanic skin response anyway? If he does, he is said to be CONDITIONED. He has responded to the weak stimulus as if it were the strong stimulus. He is apparently unable to distinguish the two stimuli. The response resulting from the weak stimulus which formerly did not produce a response is said to be a CONDITIONED RESPONSE.
EXPERIMENT 17 – Extinction of a Conditioned Response
Repeat Experiment 16 to obtain a strong conditioned response. His conditioned response will probably be less. Repeat the weak stimulus again at intervals and you will observe that his galvanic skin response will gradually decrease and soon became unobservable. (This is similar to the adaptation experiment.) This process is called EXTINCTION.
EXPERIMENT 18 – Spontaneous Recovery
Repeat Experiment 17. Give the subject a ten or fifteen minute rest and then attach the electrodes to him again. Do not tell him what you are going to do, and present to him the first weak stimulus again. You may observe that he again gives a conditioned response. This is called SPONTANEOUS RECOVERY. The initial weak stimulus has again recovered its power to produce a strong response. You can again extinguish this spontaneous recovery and after a further rest observe a second recovery. You can recondition him at any time by presenting both stimuli together as in Experiment 16. Try variations of this experiment and others described in this manual and see what you can discover Psychology is still an open science.
A GSR Experiment – Watching Horror Documentary (The Devil Inside 2012) for 14:48 mins
Significant peaks & dips while watching the clip.
00:01 = 123
01:09 = 198
07:01 = 34
07.21 = 176
07:33 = 190
The more stress, the lower the skin’s resistance therefore the readings are higher.
I was trying to see if the GSR readings reflected changes in emotion while watching a movie.
Surprisingly, the readings were pretty close to moment of startle in the clip.
With this, I will move on to my next set of experiment to see how the sensors response in different scenarios. Next steps -
- Identifying scenarios where acts of selfishness surface or become more apparent.
- Testing device in scenarios
- Designing a more robust and portable wearable device
- Combining both GSR sensor and EEG sensor into the wearable system
- Do more drawings
Inspirations from email conversation with Giorgia Lupi on 19 Nov 2013.
A mindmap of conversation with Dan’O on 7 Nov 2013.
Mindmap of conversation with Marina on 7 Nov 2013.
Crazy chaotic lab filled with colorful chemicals, glass apparatus brewing and bubbling. Audience walks through this cloud gin tonic vapor infused inside the room. This room houses a bar where alcohol and beverages can be purchased for consumption during the performance. Audience are free to roam between this room, Fantasy World and Yoshimi's Apartment.
Creating unique html page for both user and viewer roles.
Explore alternative ways of competitive chatting.
Explore alternative ways of chatting e.g. collaborative (exquisite corpse) story telling.
Implementing a mobile version and projecting the chat room onto a public space and see how people interact with it on their mobile phones.
Week 3 into research
The pledge to keep ITP clean was my attempt at proving if selfishness exist in a community.
Does the lack of pledge equates the lack of concern?
Is the number of people who pledge equal to the level of selfishness?
The less people pledge the more selfish ITP is?
Is ITP a selfish place?
Can you measure selfishness?
A total of 201 flyers were put up.
1 went missing
27 pledged = 13.5%
173 unsigned = 86.5%
3 added onto the flyer additional clauses
out of which 2 mentioned about the use of too much paper
I spoke to a few people about the response.
Most were upset by the use pink paper.
One student felt that the sacredness of an individual pledge is lost amongst the sea of pink flyers.
EXPERT 1 – KATHERINE DILLON (UX DESIGN)
I went to speak to Professor Katherine Dillon a UX expert on how I can encourage people to wash their cups and keep the pantry space tidy after use. To her the closing email reports were more like a form of punishment, she encourages me to look at reward as a mean to solve this problem.
An example she quoted was from the London Underground, classical music is played at the train stations to reduce crime. Apparently classical music “is said to have a calming influence and cut anti-social behavior..Police figures show that levels of assault on the Metro system fell by a quarter in 2005 and criminal damage was down by 20%” – http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/uk_news/england/4710426.stm
Social scientists installed mirrors onto shopping trolleys to help people change eating habits. The constant reminder to look at your body and remind yourself of what you should be eating. Signs showing shopper what the average customer was buying, which fruits and vegetable were the biggest sellers conveyed social norms, or acceptable behaviors. According to the scientists, the more mindless consumers are, the more they are likely to be persuaded by the manufacturers products – http://www.nytimes.com/2013/08/28/dining/wooing-us-down-the-produce-aisle.html?pagewanted=all&_r=0;
The takeaway from the session was; instead of preaching or punishing people, gentle probing has proven to be an effective way to alter behavior. Nudge marketing, an idea proposed by the former Obama administration regulatory affairs administrator Cass R. Sunstein and the University of Chicago professor Richard H. Thaler… calls for applying just the right amount of pressure to persuade – not too little, not too much.
Probably my 201 poster flyers “nudge too hard” for some. In another example, South Lanarkshire installed signs that smile at you when you are under the speed limit. The number of people exceeding speeding limit dropped by 53%. Making you feel good about yourself is effective here.
In the case of the my 201 flyers, people felt that they do not have a choice, the wall had been created for them. What if this wall is their creation? What would happen? Imagine a collaborative quilt with cloth tassels where one can write and tie their pledge to the main quilt. Maybe the more nuanced the message is the more people is likely to persuaded by it. Something new I learnt – Fogg Behavior model. “The model reduces the elements of behavior change to three factors: Motivation, Ability and Trigger. Fogg states that all three must all be present for a behavior change to occur. Motivation is the reward we anticipate or the punishment we fear. Rewards can be social, monetary or aspirational. Ability is the financial, mental, temporal or physical ability to act and the Trigger is the spark or signal necessary at the moment of decision making that can influence behavior. The timing of the triggers is critical.” – http://itp.nyu.edu/~kd49/persuasion/?p=10
Despite given the Nudge as the starting point, I somehow felt something lacking in my own exploration. Hence I revisited a meaning of selfishness and altruism (selflessness) and I stumbled upon a hormone called ‘oxytocin’. It is also called the love hormone, a hormone that increases trust and cooperation. What is the hormone is administered onto ITP floor? What is there is a sensor that is able to dissipate the hormone wherever the floor gets overcrowded. I started sketching some ideas. What if I administer the drug on myself? Will I become less selfish over time? One important takeaway from speaking to Professor Dillon was what would be the benchmark for my measure of selfishness. Is it by the number of cups left unwashed at the end of each day? Is it the number of reports per month from the floor staff?
wearing it to itp everyday especially during assignment due week
oxytocin aerosol dispenser
installed at sink area, laser cutter, common itp floor.
emitting at regular interval especially when crowd hits a certain threshold for a minimum of 30min – 1hr. Note: what is the average duration one stay at ITP floor? What is the longest? What is the shortest?
i carry an inhaler to ITP. whenever i feel stress, I will inhale oxytocin
build a mobile installation to house & dry 200 cups
EXPERT 2 – BENEDETTA PIANTELLA (FACULTY – PCOMP, WEARABLES)
Speaking to Benedetta made me realized two important key point when creating self-tracking devices. The sensors that monitor change in skin or brainwaves are rudimentary. Even though a lie-detector can range from $200 – $5 (DIY) the fundamental of detection is pretty much the same. It is a galvanic skin response sensor which measures the electrical conductance of the skin. However, the most challenging part would be understanding and analyzing the data collected from these sensors. How do we make sense of these data? Further to this she recommended that the device be put real world test. Wearing them under different situations to monitor how the readings varied in these contexts. Benedetta suggested a 4 step process to realizing the device.
Step 1. Analyzing skin response
Step 2. Administer hormones while monitoring brain activity
Step 3. Monitoring brain activity without hormones
Step 4. Monitoring body response with alternative sensors
Our Dualistic Mind
Professor Zoran Josipovic at NYU conducted a series of fMRI scans on Tibetan Lama Phakyab Rinpoche, who believes that he has cured his own gangrene-stricken leg by meditation for a year. Professor Zoran explains that one’s brain is divided into extrinsic (task oriented) and intrinsic (emotion & self-reflexvity) neural networks. These networks usually functions independently like a see-saw, when one is up the other is down. The setup allows one to concentrate more easily on a single task at one time. Buddhist monks and long-time meditators have the ability to keep both neural networks active at the same time during meditation. Professor Zoran believes that this may lead to the monk experiencing oneness with their environment. According to contemplative traditions, the dualistic mind is often seen as the core of our sufferings. – source ‘The Daily Beast’
What is the concept of self?
I started my investigation with polars; Selfishness and Selflessness, but found it hard to expand from these extremes. Little did I know that my brain has been conditioned to think in terms of duality.
selfish o———————————o selfless
self o——————————–o other
As Marina pointed out succinctly, an alternative diagramming to this model may assist me is expanding my research. What is it is a network? What if there is a fulcrum? I went on to read about Bruno Latour’s Actor Network Theory and two quotes really stood out for me.
In Networks, Societies, Spheres: Reflections of an Actor network Theorist” – Bruno Latour describes -
“To be self-contained—that is to be an actor—and to be
thoroughly dependent—that is to be a network—is to say twice the same thing.”
“But the web is changing all of that and fast: “to have” (friends, relations,
profiles…) is quickly becoming a stronger definition of oneself than “to be.”
It is about how interconnected we are in the digital era, yet at the same time the concept of self is develop through having friends and relations (e.g. Facebook, Twitter followers, number of likes)
I found a strong correlation between this ideology with the concept of TAO in Chinese philosophy. In Alan Watts TAO: The Waterway Course he explains,
“The art of life is not seen by holding to yang and banishing the yin but as keeping the two in balance because there cannot be one without the other.”
“At the very roots of Chinese thinking and feeling there lies the principles of polarity, which is not to be confused with the ideas of opposition or conflict. In the metaphor of other cultures, light is at war with darkness, life with death, good with evil, the positive with negative…”
“The disappearance of either one would be the disappearance of the system.”
“What is that which always retreats when pursued? Answer: Yourself”
How do I visually represent / present:
independency of polarities
completeness in incompleteness
Given a unquantifiable challenge, I decide to learn from my understanding of polarities. Study the quantifiable. Through the quantifiable, I will be able to discover the unquantifiable. Hence my new design challenge would be “Visualizing the Quantifiable Self”.
Looking at projects related to self-awareness and feedback loop between self and environment:
EIDOS is a series of wearables that allow us to control our exsiting senses in real time.
Tracking Self – Walk All Manhattan by Alastair Tse
The IOS developer at Google created an iPhone app to track his walks around New York.
Images from Alastair Tse Presentation Slides
A Bite of Me
From our very own ITP alumn Federico Zannier data mined himself and is selling his data.
The Perplexity of Our Consciousness
David Chalmers, Philosopher from the Australian Nation University discussed the ‘hard problem’ of our consciousness.
Reading A Thousand Plateaus
I often have problems reading and understanding philosophical texts since I do conceptualize my world better through visual models. A Thousand Plateaus is vivid in illustrating abstract concepts of rhizomes. Deleuze and Guattari discuss the rhizome as an alternative model to reading of the world. Rhizome = nonhierarchical = grass-like = schizo-analysis = acentered. He posits that the tree has dominated Western reality and all of Western thoughts. On the other hand, the East represents a different grass-like figure (weeds). Rhizome is not about dualism. It has no beginning and the end but starts from the middle.
The text made me rethink about how I perceived self at present. I often see the relationship in duality e.g self vs other. I hope to find new ways to diagram my Self in the world. What if there is no self at all?